German Tenses Explained
Which German Tenses does the language have?
What are the 6 German tenses?
The six German tenses are present, perfect, past, future perfect, pluperfect and future. The present tense is used when talking about an action that is happening in the present or for habits and states. It is formed using the basic verb form in conjugation with personal pronouns. The perfect tense is used to refer to actions that have taken place in the past and can be translated as 'have done something'. It is formed using a conjugated form of haben or sein plus a past participle. The past tense is used to describe what happened in the past and can be translated as 'did something'. It is formed using a conjugated form of haben or sein plus a past participle. The future perfect tense is used for actions expected to take place before another action in the future, and it can be translated as 'will have done something'. It is formed using werden (or sein) plus a present participle. The pluperfect tense refers to events that happened before another event in the past, and it can be translated as 'had already done something'. It is formed using hatten or waren plus a past participle. Lastly, the future tense indicates events that will take place in the future, and it can be translated as 'will do something'. It is formed using werden (or sein) plus an infinitive form of a verb. All six German tenses are essential for speaking German fluently - understanding them will help you communicate effectively with native speakers!
How Do German Verbs work?
German verbs are an integral part of the German language and can be quite complex. Unlike English, German verbs always have a single tense, one that is inflected for person and number. German also has many modal particles which indicate the mood or attitude of the speaker such as ‘mögen’ (to like) or ‘können’ (to be able to). These are usually accompanied by a verb in its infinitive form, such as ‘spielen’ (to play),to form a phrase. Depending on their position in the sentence they may change their meaning slightly. For example, “Ich mag spielen” would mean “I like to play” whilst “Ich spiele gern” would mean “I like playing”. Additionally, some German verbs can take two objects – a direct object and an indirect object – while others require that both objects be combined into one with a preposition. Understanding how these features work is key to mastering the German language and expressing yourself accurately.
What is the German Present Tense?
The German present tense is the most basic form of verb conjugation in the German language. It is used to express an action or a state that occurs in the present moment, and it is the most commonly used verb tense for everyday communication. The present tense can be formed by adding a suffix or prefix to the infinitive form of a verb, and some verbs require additional consonants or vowels to be added depending on the context. Additionally, there are two variations of the German present tense: Präsens (present) and Konjunktiv II (subjunctive). Präsens is used to express actions that happen regularly, while Konjunktiv II is used to express wishes, doubts, hypotheses and politeness. This tense can also be used with ‘haben’ and ‘sein’ to create compound tenses such as Perfect, Plusquamperfect and Futur II. With practice and dedication, anyone can become fluent in using this important component of the German language.
The German present tense is conjugated for regular verbs as shown in the picture above. When you take the infinitive "gehen" (to go) you add the endings to the word stem (in this case geh-).
Conjugation of the German Present Tense
German present tense conjugation is the way in which German verbs are modified to express person, number, gender, and time. Conjugating a verb involves changing the verb’s form depending on who is performing the action. In German, there are three persons (first, second, and third) as well as two numbers (singular and plural). Additionally, all verbs must be conjugated for both genders (masculine and feminine). For regular verbs in the present tense, the infinitive form of the verb is used as a base for conjugation. Depending on the person and number of the subject performing the action, different endings are added to this base form. For example, “machen” (to make) is conjugated as “mache” for first-person singular, “machst” for second-person singular, “macht” for third-person singular, “machen” for first-person plural, “macht” for second-person plural, and finally “machen” for third-person plural.
So the present tense is conjugated like this:
- ich gehe = I go
- du gehst = you go
- er, sie, es geht = he, she it goes
- wir gehen = we go
- ihr geht = you go
- sie gehen = they go
In the main sentence, the verb normally stands at the 2nd position and the subject often stands at the 1st position.
Der Junge geht in den Park. The boy goes in the park.
- "Der Junge" is counted as the 1st position and "geht" is the verb and at the 2nd position.
German irregular verbs for the German Present Tense
There are some irregular verbs which are called "strong verbs". The most import ones for the German present tense are these:
- dürfen = to be allowed to = ich darf, du darfst, er, sie es darf, wir dürfen, ihr dürft, sie dürfen
- empfehlen = to recommend = ich empfehle, du empfiehlst, er ,sie, es empfiehlt, wir empfehlen, ihr empfehlt, sie empfehlen.
- brechen = to break = ich breche, du brichst, er, sie, es bricht, wir brechen, ihr brecht, sie brechen
- essen = to eat = ich esse, du isst, er, sie, es isst, wir essen, ihr esst, sie essen.
- fahren = to drive = ich fahre, du fährst, er, sie, es fährt, wir fahren, ihr fahrt, sie fahren
- fallen = to fall = ich falle, du fällst, er, sie, es fällt, wir fallen, ihr fallt, sie fallen
- fangen = to catch = ich fange, du fängst, er, sie, es fängt, wir fangen, ihr fangt, sie fangen
- fressen = (to eat for animals) ich fresse, du frisst, er, sie, es frisst, wir fressen, ihr fresst, sie fressen
- haben = to have = ich habe, du hast, er, sie, es hat, wir haben, ihr habt, sie haben
- helfen = to help = ich helfe, du hilfst, er, sie, es hilft, wir helfen, ihr helft, sie helfen
- können = can, to be able to = ich kann, du kannst, er, sie, es kann, wir können, ihr könnt, sie können
- laufen = to run = ich laufe, du läufst, er, sie, es läuft, wir laufen, ihr lauft, sie laufen
- lesen = to read = ich lese, du liest, er, sie, es liest, wir lesen, ihr lest, sie lesen
- müssen = must, have to = ich muss, du musst, er, sie es muss, wir müssen, ihr müsst, sie müsseb
- nehmen = to take = ich nehme, du nimmst, er, sie, es nimmt, wir nehmen, ihr nehmt, sie nehmen
- raten = to advise, guess = ich rate, du rätst, er, sie, es rät, wir raten, ihr ratet, sie raten
- schlafen = to sleep = ich schlafe, du schläfst, er, sie, es schläft, wir schlafen, ihr schlaft, sie schlafen
- sehen = to see = ich sehe, du siehst, er, sie, es sieht, wir sehen, ihr seht, sie sehen
- sollen = should = ich soll, du sollst, er, sie, es soll, wir sollen, ihr sollt, sie sollen
- sprechen = to speak = ich spreche, du sprichst, er, sie, es spricht, wir sprechen, ihr sprecht, sie sprechen
- tragen = to wear = ich trage, du trägst, er, sie, es trägt, wir tragen, ihr tragt, sie tragen
- wissen = to know = ich weiß, du weißt, er, sie, es weiß, wir wissen, ihr wisst, sie wissen
The German Future 1 Tense
The German future 1 tense is used for events that are expected or planned to happen in the near future. It is formed by conjugating the verb werden (to become/to will) and then adding the infinitive form of the main verb. This tense is used to indicate that something will happen, but without any certainty as to when it will occur. For example, "Ich werde nach Hause gehen" (I will go home). The German future 1 tense can also be used to express a prediction or assumption about something that has not yet happened. For example, "Es wird regnen" (It will rain). The German future 1 tense is an important part of the language and is used for speaking about events that are likely or assumed to take place in the near future.
The German future 1 tense is the easiest tense in German and is similar to English.To create a sentence in German future you build a form of "werden" and add at the end of the sentence the infinite of the verb. This is a bit different compared to English but should be no problem after practicing it a bit.
- Wir werden in dem Seminar viel lernen. = We will learn a lot in the seminar.
You can see that the form of "werden" is placed at the 2nd position and the infinitive is at the end.
The German language does not provide a going to future tense, so instead the present tense (very near future e.g. today, in a bit, soon) or future 1 (near and far away and unclear future, e.g: tomorrow, in a few days, next year) is used.
The German Perfect Tense
The German perfect tense called German Perfekt is a past tense that we use to speak about completed actions in the recent past. The German perfect tense is used to express a recently completed action in the past with a focus on the outcome of the action.
In the spoken German language, the present perfect tense is more often used instead of the simple past because conjugating the verbs for the German perfect is normally easier than for the German simple past named „Präteritum“.
How is the German perfect tense conjugated?
The German perfect is conjugated by using a form of „haben“ (to have) or form of „sein“ (to be) plus a past participle at the end of the sentence.
- Der Junge hat über den Witz gelacht. The boy has laughed at the joke.
- Das Mädchen ist nach Hause gegangen. The girl has gone home.
When do we use the form of haben and sein in the German perfect?
- The form of sein is used when the verb expresses locomotion. So when you can move from A to B. This applies for example to these verbs: schwimmen (swim),gehen (go),wandern (hike),rennen (run),springen (jump).
- A form of German sein is also used when the verb expresses a change of a condition.
- Example: Das Eis ist geschmolzen. The ice is melted. It shows a change of a condition, there was ice and now the ice became water.
- All other verbs are used with haben. E.g like all reflexive Verbs: Sie hat sich gekümmert. She has taken care.
How are the verbs haben and sein conjugated?
How is the Past Participle conjugated?
Regular verbs which are also named weak verbs are built with „ge“ plus „t“. „ge“ is added at the beginning of the verb and „t“ at the end of the word stem.
- gemacht,gelacht. The infinitives of these verbs are „machen“ and „lachen“
- To create the past participle, the „ge“ and „t“ are placed before and after the verb stem which are „mach“ and „lach“.
- Irregular verbs are formed with a „ge“ plus „en“ for the strong verbs or „ge“ plus „t“ for a mixed verb. Example „gebacken“ backen (bake). „gedacht“ denken (think).
What is the German Simple Past?
- Gestern ging ich in den Park. Yesterday I went to the park.
How is the Simple Past Conjugated?
- Ich fragte = I asked
- du fragtest = You asked
- er, sie, es fragte = he, she, it asked
- wir fragten = we asked
- ihr fragtet = You asked
- sie fragten = they asked
German Irregular Verbs for the Simple Past :
- gehen, ging = go, went
- schwimmen, schwam = swim, swam
- baken, buk = bake, baked
- fahren, fuhr = drive, drove
- rennen, rannte = run, run
- essen, aß = eat, ate
- trinken, trank, drink, drank
- laufen, lief = run, run
- sein, waren = be, was
- haben, hatten = have, had
- werden, wurden = become, became
- wissen, wussten = know, knew
- denken, dachten = think, thought
What is the German Past Perfect?
The German past perfect is a verb form used to express actions that were completed prior to another action in the past. The German past perfect is formed by using the verb “hatten” (had) or “waren” (were) followed by the past participle of the main verb.
This tense is most commonly used to describe events that happened before other events in the past or to provide context for a past event. For example, if someone said “Ich hatte schon gegessen” (I had already eaten),they would be using the German Past Perfect tense.
- Er hatte viel gelernt, bevor er die Klausur schrieb. He had learned a lot before he wrote the exam.
When do we use a form of hatten and of a waren?
- Der Junge hat im Park gespielt. The boy has played in the park.
- Der Junge hatte im Park gespielt. The boy had played in the park.
- Die Frau ist nach Hamburg gefahren.
- Die Frau war nach Hamburg gefahren.
How is the Past Perfect Conjugated?
- ich war = I was
- du warst = you were
- er, sie, es war = he, she, it was
- wir waren = we were
- ihr ward = you were
- sie waren = they were
- ich hatte = I had
- du hattest = you had
- er, sie, es hatte = he, she, it had
- wir hatten = we had
- ihr hattet = you had
- sie hatten = you had
What is the German Future Perfect Tense?
The German Future perfect tense is a verb tense used to express actions that will have been completed in the future. It is formed using the auxiliary verb “werden” (will) combined with the past participle of a main verb. This tense is mostly used when talking about events that will occur before some other event in the future, such as
- “Ich werde meine Prüfungen bestanden haben, bevor ich nach Spanien gehe.” I will have passed my exams before I go to Spain.
The structure of this tense follows the pattern of “werden + past participle” and can be used to express actions that are expected to happen at some point in the future. The German future perfect tense is needed to express a past event in the future. The German future perfect combines the German Future 1 and the German simple perfect tense. The German future perfect tense is only rarely needed.
How is the German future perfect tense formed?
To create a future perfect sentence, 1st a form of „werden“ (Future form) is built and at the end of the sentence, a past participle plus the infinitive of haben or sein is added.
- Der Junge wird am Freitag die Klausur geschrieben haben. The boy will have written the exam on Friday.
- Das Mädchen wird am Donnerstag zu ihren Großeltern gefahren sein. The girl will have gone to see her grandparents on Thursday.
The infinitive of haben is used when you use a form of haben in the perfect tense and the form of sein is needed when you use sein in the German perfect tense.
- Die Kinder haben Fußball gespielt. Die Kinder werden Fußball gespielt haben. The children have played football. The children will have played football.
- Der Koch hat ein leckeres Essen gekocht. Der Koch wird ein leckeres Essen gekocht haben. The chef has cooked a delicious meal. The chef will have cooked a delicious meal.